Adjective (Adjectiu)
 
 
As in the other Romance languages, the adjectives in Catalan agree in gender and number with the nouns they refer to.
 
 
Gender of the Adjectives (Gènere dels Adjectius)

Adjectives of two forms

These are adjectives with distinct forms for masculine and feminine. The masculine normally ends consonant, with a few cases of unstressed (-a, -e, -i, -o, -u) or stressed (-à, è, -í, -ó, -ú) vowel endings, and the feminine is normally derived from masculine by adding -a, or changing -o to -a, cf.:
 
  Masculine Feminine Meaning
  fondo fonda deep
  maco maca nice
  baix  baixa low
  sec  seca dry
  petit petita little
  vell  vella old
  verd verda green
  trist trista sad
 
The adjectives in -eu form their feminines in -ea, cf.:

A few adjectives in -e have feminine forms in -a, especially those ending in two consonants plus an -e: There are also some more complicated changes:
 
Type of change
Masculine Feminine Meaning
       
-c : -qua
oblic  obliqua oblique
-s : -ss
gras grassa fat
       
voicening
cec cega blind
 
lleig lletja ugly
 
boig boja crazy
  llis llisa smooth
       
restoring final -n
català catalana Catalan
 
comú comuna common
       
restoring final -v
nou nova new
 
blau blava blue
 
 
Adjectives of one form
 
The adjectives ending -al (-ar), -el, -il, -ble, -ç, -a, -e, -ista, -nt and some others normally have a common form for masculine and feminine, cf.:  
Plural of the Adjectives (Plural dels Adjectius)

The plural of the adjectives is formed in the same way as that of the nouns: the suffix -s is added (-os if the singular form ends in -s, -x or ç) and the feminines change their final -a to -e, cf.:
 
  M a s c u l i n e F e m i n i n e
  Singular Plural Singular Plural
  vell vells vella velles
  verd verds verda verdes
  petit petits petita petites
  català catalans catalana catalanes
  comú comuns comuna comunnes
  sec secs seca seques
  cec cecs cega cegues
  gras grassos grassa grasses
  llis llisos llisa llises
  baix baixos baixa baixes
  lleig lleigs / lletjos lletja lletges
  boig boigs / bojos boja boges
  fondo fondos fonda fondes
  maco macos maca maques
  oblic obliqua oblics obliqües
  europeu europeus europea europees
  nou nous nova noves
  blau blaus blava blaves
  trist trists / tristos trista tristes
 
Note that the masculine adjectives with stressed last vowel restore the nasal sound in plural: català : catalans, comú : comuns etc.

There occur also orthographical changes (e.g. ig =>tj => tge ; ig => j => ge ; qua => qües ; ca => ques...). However, note that in the case of -ig endings, there are two equally correct forms for the plural. This is also true of words ending in -st, -xt or -sc.

Some adjectives in voiceless consonant restore the voiced one (e.g. t => d , c => g; final -s remains single -s- even between vowels), while other adjectives retain the voiceless consonant in all the forms (the final -s becomes -ss- between vowels).

Most of the adjectives of one form in singular, have also one form in plural, cf:
 
  Singular Plural
  difícil difícils
  elegant elegants
  gran grans
  lliure lliures
  jove joves
  regular regulars
 
The adjectives ending in have the masc. plural in -ços and the fem. plural in -ces, cf.:

The adjectives with masc. sg. in -e and fem. sg. in -a have a general plural in -es, cf.:  
The adjectives bo 'good' and mal / dolent(e) 'bad'

The adjective bo good takes the masculine singular bon when used before the noun, cf.:

The adjective mal, -a, -s, -es is used only before, and the adjective dolent, -a, -s, -es only after the noun, cf.:  
Degrees of the Adjectives (Graus dels Adjectius)
 
Comparative degree (Grau Comparatiu)

Comparative degree is formed analitically. Note that adjective agreement is with the principal noun:
 
Comparative Degree
Formation
Examples
of Superiority
més + ADJ. + que
En Joan és més alt que en Marc. 
John is taller than Mark.
of Equality
[tan] + ADJ. + com
En Joan és [tan] alt com en Marc. 
John Sandro is as tall as Mark.
of Inferiority
menys + ADJ. + que
En Joan és menys alt que en Marc. 
John is less tall than Mark.
 
 
Superlative degree (Grau Superlatiu)
 
Superlative Degree
Formation
Examples
Absolute synthethical 
(rarely used)
ADJ. + -íssim
La muntanya és altíssima.
The mountain is very high.
Absolute analytical
(two varieties)
molt + ADJ.
La muntanya és molt alta. 
The mountain is very high.
força + ADJ.
La muntanya és força alta.
The mountain is very high.
Relative
Det. + més+ ADJ. + de
Es el més alt de tots.
He's the tallest of all.
 
 
Irregular degrees (Graus irregulars)
 
Six adjectives have irregular synthetical comparative forms, inherited from Latin. Each of these has in turn a synthetical superlative form. However, these are rather literary forms, and are seldom used in everyday speach:
 
  Adjective Comparative degree Superlative degree
  bon / bo millor òptim
  mal / dolent pitjor pèssim
  gran major màxim
  petit menor mínim
  alt superior suprem
  baix inferior ínfim

 
 

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