Pronouns

Personal and Reflexive Pronouns

 
 
 
Subjective
(Stressed)
  _  
O b j e c t i v e___( U n s t r e s s e d )
   
P o s t p o s i t i v e s
P r e p o s i t i v e s
   
Full form
Reduced form
Reinforced form
Elided form
Sg.
1.
mf
jo (mi) I
 
Acc./Dat.
mf
me (to) me
'm
em
m'
2.
mf
tu you 
 
Acc./Dat.
mf
te (to) you
'l
et
t'
3.
m
ell he
 
Acc.
m
lo him
'l
el
l'
 
f
ella she
 
Acc.
f
la her
--
--
l'
 
n
--
 
Acc.
n
ho it
--
--
--
 
Pol.
Vostê You
 
Dat.
mf
li (hi) to him / to her
--
--
--
Reflexive
(si) him- / her- / itself
 
Reflexive
se him- / her- / itself
's
es
s'
Pl.
1.
mf
nosaltres we
 
Acc./Dat.
mf
nos (to) us
'ns
ens
--
2.
mf
vosaltres you
 
Acc./Dat.
mf
vos (to) you
us
--
--
3.
m
ells they
 
Acc.
m
los them
'ls
els
--
 
f
ellas they
 
Acc.
f
les them
--
--
--
 
Pol.
Vostês You
 
Dat.
mf
los to them
'ls
els
--
Reflexive
(si) themselves
 
Reflexive
se themselves
's
es
s'

See also Forms of Address, Reflexive verbs.

The stressed forms

The stressed pronouns are used emphatically as subject of the verb, or with preposition, cf. Note that the form me for 1p. sg. is used after a preposition, cf.:

The unstressed forms

The unstressed pronouns can function as both direct and indirect objects (i.e., accusative and dative), and also as reflexives and reciprocals. In the third person, different forms are used for each of these grammatical functions.

The unstressed pronouns may be of full, reduced, reinforced and elided form, although not all of them are available for all pronouns.

The full form is used after a verb ending in a consonant or dipthongal -u; some full forms are also used as the initial element of a pronoun combination, regardless of position relative to the verb:

The reduced form is used after a verb ending in a vowel other than -u. The reinforced form is used before a verb beginning with a consonant. The elided form is used before a verb beginning with a vowel. Note that the pronouns after a verb form a single word with it, from which they are separated by either an apostrophe or a hyphen, depending on whether the verb ends in a vowel or a consonant or dipthongal -u.

And also, where there is no reduced form, the full form is used after a verb ending in a vowel. Where there is no elided form, the reinforced form is used before a verb beginning with a vowel. Where there is no reinforced form, the full form is used instead, except for vos in which the reduced form us is used.

Pronominal combinations

There occur different phonetic changes when the pronouns (and the pronominal adverbs) are combined. The result is a contracted form, that may contain up to four unstressed pronouns in Catalan, cf.: Note that in these contractions the pronoun li is replaced by hi and the pronouns order is changed, cf.: So, the rules for such combinations are complicated and even native Catalan speakers rarely know all of the correct combinations. The basic idea is the direct and indirect objects to be expressed most economically in a single combination, cf.

The Neuter pronoun

Catalan has a neuter pronoun, ho, derived from the Latin hoc this, which denotes anything not clearly defined or that cannot be expressed by a noun. It may be considered an unstressed pronoun corresponding to the demonstrative pronouns això this and allò that.

This pronoun has no other form than ho, i.e., it does not have the complete set of full, reduced, reinforced and elided forms other pronouns have.

Example:

Do you know Martha has bought a car? I know this.
The phrase que la Marta s’ha comprat un cotxe ‘Martha has bought a car’ cannot be replaced by a single noun, and hence the pronoun to be substituted for it is ho.
 

Possessive Pronouns (Pronoms Possessius)

The possessive pronouns coincide in their forms with the Possessive adjectives, but may be used absolutely, without a noun.
 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Pronoms Demonstratius)

 
V a r i a b l e
Invariable
Singular
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Near objects
aquest this
aquesta
aquests
aquestes 
açò this
Remote objects
aqueix this, that
aqueixa
aqueixos
aqueixes
això this, that
aquell that
aquella
aquells
aquelles
allò that

As happens with the corresponding (and identical) adjectives, the demonstrative pronouns aquest, aqueix and aquell express three degrees of proximity, but in actual usage aqueix has been dropped in favor of aquest. Something similar happens with açò, això and allò, only in this case the survivor has been the pronoun corresponding to the second degree of proximity; namely, això combines the meaning of older-usage açò and això.

Examples:

 

Relative Pronouns (Pronoms Relatius)

V a r i a b l e
Invariable
Singular
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
el qual which, whom, who
la qual
els quals
les quals
que that, which, who
què which
qui who, whom
on where

The relative pronouns always refer to an antecedent, which must have already been mentioned, either explicitly or implicitly, in another part of the same sentence or in a preceding sentence.

The stressed relative què is used only after a preposition. The compound relative el qual, as well as its other inflected forms, can be substituted for both que, què and qui, but its use is restricted to the written language.

Examples:

 

Interrogative Pronouns (Pronoms Interrogatius)

V a r i a b l e
Invariable
Singular
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
quin? which one(s)?
quina?
quins?
quines?
qui? who?
què? what?

The interrogative pronouns are used either in direct questions or in interrogative subordinate clauses, cf.:

 

Indefinite Pronouns (Pronoms Indefinits)

Persons
Objects
algú somebody, someone; anyobody, anyone
tot all
cadascú each (one)
tothom everybody, everyone
quelcom something
un, una one, you
hom one, you
alguna cosa something, anything
un hom one, you

The indefinite pronouns do not refer to any specific thing or person, and are used when not enough information is available, or when vagueness is intended. There are eleven simple indefinite pronouns, and two compound ones.

The pronoun quelcom and the compound pronoun alguna cosa are, in theory, synonyms, but the first one is rare in common speech. In actual usage, the hispanism algo is more often than not substituted for both genuine pronouns. Hom and un hom are only roughly synonymous with the English one or you as in ‘one can only imagine it’ or ‘what you see is what you get’. The actual equivalents would be the French ‘on’ or the German ‘man’, which represent an indefinite agent, with no other meaning. However, both hom and un hom are restricted to formal usage. In everyday speech, constructions involving the reflexive passive voice with the unstressed pronoun se are the preferred way of omitting the subject of a sentence.

Examples:

 

Negative Pronouns (Pronoms Negatius)

Persons
Objects
ningú nobody, no one 
res nothing, anything

Examples:


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