Verb


The Catalan verbs are classified according to the pattern of their infinitive endings into 3 groups or conjugations (q.v.). Many verbs of the 3rd conjugation of Catalan have incorporated the inchoative suffix -eix- in the forms of the present tense (see Latin inchoative verbs).

The conjugations are as follows:
 

I conjugation

I I c o n j u g a t i o n

III conjugation

stressed -ar

stressed -er

unstressed -er

instressed -re

mute -r

stressed -ir

w/o suffix

with suffix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

anar to go
cantar to sing
estar to be
parlar to speak
...

haver to have
poder can, may
saber to know
soler to be accustomed
valer to be worth
voler to want

córrer to run
créixer to grow up
tòrcer to twirl
...

caure to fall
perdre to lose
vendre to sell
...

dir to say
dur to carry
fer to make, do
...

dormir to sleap
sent
ir to feel
venir to come
...

servir to serve
eixir to go out
...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See the Lists of the Verbs of the 3rd conjugation without -eix-, with -eix- and with or without -eix-.

Catalan has some 150 irregular verbs. Many of them are derived verbs or show the same irregularity, so they are formed pattern groups. See the Irregular verbs.

In modern Catalan the development of the 2nd and 3rd conjugation is practically frozen, while the 1st conjugation is permanently expanding by new derivatives.

The verbal endings are characteristical of the person and the usage of the personal pronouns as verbal Subjects accomplishes rather emphatical functions.

There are 4 simple tenses (q.v.) in Catalan: the Present (q.v.), the Past (q.v.), the Imperfect (q.v.) and the Future (q.v.); the Past simple tense is replaced in the speech by the periphrastical construction anar to go + infinitive. The compound tenses are constructed with the auxiliary (q.v.) haver to have and the past passive participle.

Catalan has 5 verbal moods (q.v.) -- indicative (q.v.), subjunctive (q.v.), imperative (q.v.), infinitive (q.v.) and potential (q.v.) (or conditional) mood. As compared with Latin, Catalan lost the Future Imperative. The Latin present participles were preserved in the function of gerund, while the future ones have only sporadically survived as verbal adjectives (like futuro future).

The passive voice (q.v.) is formed analytically with the auxiliary ésser (ser) to be and the past passive participle.

The polite address requires the verb to be used in the 3rd p. sg. with the feminine pronoun lei she or in the 2nd p. pl. (the latter construction is considered now old-fashioned).

See the Forms of Address.
 
 


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