The verb haver to
have have lost its semantic usage and became the standard auxiliary
for constructing the compound
It is also used in two fundamental constructions:
haver-hi there is, there are,
Hi ha tres noies que ens miren
There are three girls looking at us.
Si no vénen, hi haurà problemes.
If they don’t show up, there will be problems.
haver de to have to, cf.:
Has de comprar vi.
You have to buy wine.
You have to go there.
The verb tenir to
have, possess, own may be used as an auxiliary, similar in function
to haver, but with a different nuance, cf.;
The constructions with tenir suggest a certain continuity over time,
while those with haver are completely neutral. The tenir
constructions can be used only with transitive verbs.
Aquests gossos, els he vistos. I have seen these
Aquests gossos, els tinc vistos. I have already seen
The verb anar to
go is used as an auxiliary with infinitives to construct the periphrastical
past tense. A little variation of present indicative is used :
vaig cantar I sang
vas/vares cantar you sang
va cantar he/she/it sang
vam/vàrem cantar we sang
vau/vàreu cantar you sang
van/varen cantar they sang
The verb ésser (ser) to
be is used in passive voice constructions, cf.:
It is also used as a copulative verb for linking a noun or noun group to
a predicative, i.e., a word group indicating a quality, state or condition,
El rei és estimat pel seu poble.
The king is loved by his people.
Aquests préssecs són els millors que he menjat.
These peaches are the best ones
I have eaten.
The verb estar, also meaning to
be, is used as an auxiliary with gerunds, or ‘-ing’-like forms,
However, like ser it can also be used as a copulative, cf.:
En Pere està estudiant.
Peter is studying.
La Núria està malalta.
Nuria is sick.
Ésser and Estar
The difference between ésser and estar is like in
Portuguese, and Italian.
The verb ser is used with permanent qualities, which are not
likely to be modified, while estar is used with qualities
that are transient or a result of transformation. A sick person is apt
to recover, so the verb must be estar. In some cases, subjectivity
plays a role in choosing between ser and estar. You
may say, for instance, Aquesta nena és alta ‘This
girl is tall’, but you may also say Aquesta nena està
alta if you think that her stature has increased noticeably in recent
times, and you want to emphasize that dramatic growth.
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