Adverbs (Adverbia)

The circumflex accent ( ) is used to denote the length of the vowels.


Adverbs are invariable words used to determine a verbal action or a quality of adjective. They are primitive and derivative.

The primitive adverbs are short words referring to circumstances of place, time and manner, as the followng ones:

haud no
jam already
mox soon
non no, not
nunc now
nunquam never
quando when?
sic yes, thus
ubi where?
unde where?
The derivative adverbs are derived from nouns, mainly adjectives, by a means of special suffixes:
 
Adjectives
Stems
Suffixes
Adverbs
longus, 3 long-
-e
longe far
citus, 3 cit-
-o
cito fast
acer, acris, acre acr-
-iter
acriter sharply
gravis, grave grav-
-iter
graviter heavily
prudens prudent-
-er
prudenter prudently

The derivative adverbs are gradable:
 
Adverbs
Stems
Comparative suffix
Comparative degree
Superlative suffix
Superlative degree
longe  long-
-ius
longius
-issime
longissime
cito  cit- citius citissime
acriter  acr- acrius acrissime
graviter  grav- gravius gravissime
prudenter  prudent- prudentius prudentissime

Note that the Comparative degree of the adverbs coincides with the Comparative degree for Nom. sg. neuter of the adjectives.

The neuter forms for Nom. sg. of some adjectives are used as adverbs in all the three degrees, cf. multum plus prurimum much more most.
 

 
Correlative adverbs (Adverbia correlativa)

Correlative adverbs are derived from pronouns and are often used in mutual relationship:
 
Interrogarive
Demonstrative
Indefinite-relative
ubi? where? hic here
ibi there
illic ,,
istic ,,
alicubi somewhere
ubiubi wherever
usquam somewhere
quo? where? huc here
eo there
illuc ,,
istuc ,,
aliquo in some/any direction
unde? from where? hinc from here
inde from there
illinc ,,
istinc ,,
alicunde from some place
qua? by where? hac here
ea there
illac ,,
istac ,,
aliqua somewhere
quando? when? when tum then
tunc ,,
aliquando sometime
umquam ever, at any time
quotiens? how many times? totiens so many times aliquotiens several times
quam? how? how much?
ut? how?
ita thus
item ,,
sic ,,
tam ,,
 

See also Correlative pronouns.


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