Second Declension (Declinatio Secunda)

The circumflex accent ( ) is used to denote the length of the vowels.


To the Second declension are referred nouns of all the three genders the stems of which ends by -o; it is usually called o-declension.

    The masculines end in Nom. sg. in us, -er, -ir; the feminines end only by us; and the neuters end only by um.

    The masculines of er are of two types:

    The nouns of us have Voc. sg. in e.

    The neuters have identical forms for Nom., Acc. and Voc. of both Sg. and Pl.
 
Case
Singular
m
m
m
m
f
n
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Voc.
populus
populi
populo
populum
populo
popule
puer 
pueri
puero
puerum
puero
puer
ager 
agri
agro
agrum
agro
ager
vir 
viri
viro
virum
viro
vir
fagus
fagi
fago
fagum
fago
fage
donum
doni
dono
donum
dono
donum
 
Plural
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Voc.
populi
populôrum
populis
populos
populis
populi
pueri
puerôrum
pueris
pueros
pueris
pueri
agri
agrôrum
agris
agros
agris
agri
viri
virôrum
viris
viros
viris
viri
fagi
fagôrum
fagis
fagos
fagis
fagi
dona
donôrum
donis
dona
donis
dona

    The nouns of the Second declension are presented in the dictionaries with their Nom. and Gen. sg. form, e.g.

    populus, i m people;
    puer, eri, m boy;
    ager, agri, m field;
    vir, i, m man;
    fagus, i, f beech tree;
    donum, i, n gift.
 


Particularities

1. The personal names in ius, -aius, -eius forms Voc. sg. by i, e.g.

Vergilius : Vergili,
Gaius : Gai,
Pompeius : Pompei.
So we have also
filius : fili.
2. The nouns in -ius and ium may form Gen. sg. by ii or i, e.g.
    negotium : negoti / negotii n work, business.

3. The noun deus, dei m god have many doublet forms:
 
Case
Singular
Plural
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Voc.
deus 
dei, divi 
deo, divo 
deum 
deo, divo 
deus, dive
dei, dii, di 
deôrum, deum 
deis, diis, dis 
deos 
deis, diis, dis 
dei, dii, di

4. The noun locus, i, m place, seat, (pl.) locality has the forms loci and loca in Nom. and. Voc. pl.

5. Several words ending in us are of neuter:
    pelagus, i, n sea;
    virus, i, n poison;
    vulgus, i, n crowd.


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