The Basic Verbal Forms

The circumflected accents are used to mark the vowels's length.


All the verbal forms are derived from the present, the perfect and the participial stems, that can be easily retrieved from the forms for:

  1. the Present Indicative,
  2. the Perfect Indicative,
  3. the Perfect Participle and
  4. the Present Infinitive.
For this reason the Roman grammarians appealed them basic verbal forms: The verbs are listed in the dictionaries with the first three forms, the infnitves being replaced by Arabic digits indicating the conjugations to which the verbs belong:

    amo, amavi, amatus, 1
    moneo, monui, monitus, 2
    lego, legi, lectus, 3
    audio, audivi, auditus, 4.

The verbs of the I and the II conjugations, that follow the pattern of amare and audire, are usually listed simply as:

    amo, 1
    audio, 4.

All the other verbs are presented with their forms for the Perfect Indicative and Perfect Participle also:

    veto, vetui, vetitus, 1 to forbid
    moneo, monui, monitus, 2 to remind
    deleo, delevi, deletus, 2 to destroy
    lego, legi, lectus, 3 to read
    scribo, scripsi, scriptus, 3 to write
    sentio, sensi, sensus, 4 to feel.

The intransitive verbs have not Perfect Participle and are listed with their forms for Supine or the Future Participle, cf.:

    cedo, cessi, cessum 3 to withdraw
    venio, veni, ventum, 4 to come
    doleo, dolui, doliturus, 2 to feel pain
    vivo, vixi, victurus, 3 to live.

Few verbs of II and III conjugations lack some of the stems and the dictionary reflects the fact by using dashes on the places of the corresponding forms, cf.:

    studeo, studui, -- , 2 to busy oneself with (the verb lacks participial stem);
    furo, -- , -- , 3 to be wild (the verb lacks perfect and participial stems).


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