Parallel Verbal Forms

The circumflected accents are used to mark the vowels' length.


Besides the usual verbal terminations (i.e. characteristics with endings), there are used, in the ancient texts especially, many alternative forms. The most important of them are listed below:

1. The 2 p. sg. passive ending –ris is shortened to –re:
    amaberis => amabere (Imperfect Indicative)
    amabaris => amabare (Future Indicative)

2. The 3 p. pl. perfect indicative active ending –erunt is shortened to –ere:
    fuerunt => fuere
    amaverunt => amavere
    monuerunt => monuere
    rexerunt => rexere
    audiverunt => audivere

3. The perfect characteristic –v- is often syncopated and the vowels before and after it are contracted, except for the vowels -ie-:
    amavisti => amasti
    amaverunt => amarunt
    amavisse => amasse
    amavissem => amassem
    amavero => amaro
    audivero => audiero
    audivisti => audisti

4. The perfects on –ivi- loose the –v-, but the vowels may not be contracted:
    audivi => audii
    amavi => amai.

5. When the perfect stem is formed with –s-, there may be obtained shortened forms by the apocope of –si-, –sis-, -iss-:
    misisti => misti
    intellexissem => intellexem
    scripsistis => scriptis
    duxisse => duxe

6. The verbs dicere, ducere, facere and ferre form the 2 p. sg. Present Imperative without –e:
    dic, duc, fac, fer.

7. The verbs of III and IV conjugations may form the passive Future Participle with –und- (instead of –end-), cf.:
    legundus, scribundus, audiundus.

8. The ancient authors use future forms with the characteristics –s- and –ss-, inflected on the pattern of the III conjugation:
    dicere : dixo
    capere : capso
    servare : servasso

9. There are occasionaly found subjunctves formed with the characteristic –si-, cf.:
    facere : faxim, faxis, faxit, faximus, faxitis, faxint.
 



Next Topic
Previous Topic

Descriptive Latin Grammar

Latin Language Main Page
Orbis Latinus Main Page

This page is part of Orbis Latinus
© Zdravko Batzarov