The Participial Stem

The circumflected accents are used to mark vowels' length.

For practical purposes, we may consider the Participial Stem to be derived from the Present stem by adding the characteristic t-, cf.:

The most verbs of the II conjugation form the Participial Stem by changing the thematic vowel ê- to î-, cf.: The verbs of the III conjugation often change the last consonant of their Present Stem before the characteristic t-, cf.: Sometimes adding t- may bring about considerable transformation of the consonant groups, cf.: The verbs with infixal n- in their Present Stem drop it when forming the Participial Stem, cf.:

Verb - General Notions
Descriptive Latin Grammar

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