Verb is a word that characteristically is the grammatical center of a predicate and expresses an act, occurrence, or mode of being.
It was noted that the Latin thought
in the classical period understood and faced the world actively, as it
turns out, and this was reflected into the language by a relatively rich
varieties of verbal modifications.
The Latin grammarians have divided the verbal forms into two classes:
1. Verba finita, or personally
defined verbal forms,
2. Verba infinita, or personally undefined verbal forms.
Latin has three persons:
Tense is a distinction of form in
a verb to express distinctions of time or duration of the action or state
There are six tenses in Latin, traditionally divided into two groups:
I. Main tenses
Mood is a distinction of verb to express whether the action or state it denotes is conceived as fact command, possibility, or wish. There are three moods in Latin:
The voice indicates the relation of the subject of the verb to the action which the verb expresses. There are two voices in Latin:
1. The Active voice (Activum)
asserts that the person or thing represented by the grammatical subject
performs the action represented by the verb:
Pater amat filiam suam. The father loves his daughter.
2. The Passive voice (Passivum)
asserts that the grammatical subject of a verb is subjected to or affected
by the action represented by that verb:
Pater amatur a filia sua. The father is loved by his daughter.
The Passive voice has sometimes
A special class is formed by the so called deponent verbs (verba deponentia) that have passive forms only, but with active meaning:
Imperator miilites hortatur. The general is encouraging the soldiers.
Verba infinita are non-personal verbal forms that are not conjugated. There are four such forms in Latin:
The transitive verbs are those that
may take a direct object. Only they may be used in Passive voice.
The intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object and limit the effect of the action to the Subject itself. In the passive voice they are used impersonally in 3 p. sg. only, cf.:
curro I run and curritur it is run.
The Latin verbs have usually three
According to the endings of the present stems the grammarians have classified the verbs into four classes (conjugations):
The Latin tenses are formed from
the relevant stems plus specific temporal characteristics and the personal
verbal endings. These endings are identical for all tenses of Indicative
and Subjunctive, except for the Perfect Indicative.
= pres. stem
When the verbal stem is ended by
a consonant or u (=[w]), there are inserted conjunctive vowels between
the stem and the temporal characteristic or personal ending that follow
The conjunctive vowels are always short and they are as follows:
|-e-||before r||leg|e|re to read|
|-i-||before m, s, t||leg|i|mus we read, leg|i|s thou read, leg|i|t he / she reads|
|-u-||before nt||leg|u|nt they read, leg|u|ntur they are read|
Descriptive Latin Grammar
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