Adjective (Adjectiu)


As in the other Romance languages (and unlike in English), the adjectives in Occitan agree in gender and number with the nouns they refer to, cf.:


Gender of the Adjectives (Genre dels Adjectius)
As a rule, the feminine of the adjective is obtained by adding -a to the masculine, cf.:


Adjectives of two forms

Adjectives ending in the masculine by -e or -èu change -e or -u to -a to form their feminine, cf.:

Adjectives ending in the masculine by a voiceless consonant voice that consonant before adding -a to form their feminine, cf.:
 
  • pesuc 
  • polit 
  • mut 
  • cortés 
  • mièg 
: pesuga heavy
: polida  beautiful
: muda  dumb
: cortesa  courteous
: mièja  half

Some adjectives ending in the masculine by -u change that -u to -v before adding -a to form their feminine, cf.:

Some adjectives have a suffix for either gender -dor, -doira, -tor, -tritz, cf.:


Adjectives of one form

Some adjectives have only one form for masculine and feminine. Except for the adjectives ended by -a, the majority of the other uniform adjectives was inherited in Occitan from the Latin adjectives of the third declension. They are no longer productive, and are only to be found in compound substantives, place names, or isolated adjectives.
 
       Masculine Feminine
  • partit comunista  communist party 
  • òme jove   young man 
  • ostal màger  big(ger) house 
organizacion comunista  communist organization
femna jove   young woman
carrièra màger  high street
aigardent  brandy, spirits
La Parròquial  place name

Plural of the Adjectives (Plural dels Adjectius)
 
Termination Plural Examples
vowel + -s nòble : nòbles  ; polida : polidas
consonant + -s grand : grands; volador : voladors 
stressed vowel + -es anglés : angleses; gos : gosses dogs; tròç : tròces pieces

See for more details Plural of the Nouns.
 

Degree of the Adjectives (Gra dels Adjectius)
 
Comparative Degree
Formation
Examples
of Superiority
mai (plus) + ADJ + que
Es mai bèl que Joan.
He is taller than Juan.
of Equality
tant + ADJ + coma
Es tant biaissuda coma sa maire.
She is as quick as her mother.
of Inferiority
mens + ADJ. + que
Soi mens inteligent que tu.
I am less inteligent than you.
   .
Superlative Degree
Formation
Examples
Absolute Synthectic
sobre-, subre- + ADJ.
(Literary usage)
 sobrebèl very big, very beautiful
subrenaut very high
Absolute Analytical
plan, fòrça, mai que mai + ADJ.
plan grand very big
fòrça mal very bad
mai que mai pèc very stupid
reduplication of the ADJ.
pichòt pichòt very small
Relative of Superiority
DEF. ART.mai (plus) + ADJ.
Aquò es lo mai vièlh
It is the most ancient.

Foguèt la mai biaissuda
She was the most skilful.

Relativo of Inferiority
DEF. ART.mens + ADJ.
Foguèt la mens biaissuda
She was the least skilful.

Irregular Degrees (Comparatius e Superlatius irregulars)
 
Adjective
Comparative 
Superlative
Regular Irregular Regular Irregular
bòn good
mai bòn
melhor
plan bon 
--
mal bad
mai mal
pièger
fòrça mal 
--
grand, bèl big
mai grand, mai bèl
màger
mai que mai grand 
--
manit little
mai manit
mendre
manit manit 
mínim (rare)
alt   high
mai alt 
superior 
fòrça alt 
suprèm (rare) 
bas   low
mai bas 
inferior 
plan bas 
ínfim (rare) 

See the Irregular suppletive degrees in Latin.
 


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