Occitan uses the adverbs en and
i in pronominal functions. This phenomenon occurs in many other
contemporary Romance languages.
NOTE: In Occitan grammars en
and i are usually referred adverbial pronouns.
pronominal adverb en
It has four distinct forms:
The pronominal adverb en has
two main functions:
elided (before vowels or h-): n’.
replacing direct object of a verb (the direct
object must not be preceded by a determiner):
As comprat de lach? Have
you bought milk?
N'as comprat? Have
you bought (of) it [milk]?
replacing a phrase introduced by the preposition
Ara que és morta, òm parla
ben de la Carme. Since she’s dead,
everyone speaks well about Carmen.
Ara que ess morta, òm ne
parla ben. Since she’s dead, everyone speaks well
pronominal adverb i
The pronominal adverb i (fromthe
Latin ibi here) is a location adverb:
In the spoken language, it can replace the
O li dirai. I'll
tell it to him. => O i dirai.
The pronominal adverbs en and i
may occur also in many idiomatic expressions:
Me’n vau. I’m
I a un dròlle aquí. There
is a boy here.
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