The verb aver to
have has retained its semantic usage and is (with èsser)
an auxiliary for constructing
It is also used in a fundamental construction i aver there
is, there are, cf.:
Ai acabat. I have finished.
I a tres dròllas que nos agachan
There are three girls looking at us.
Se venon pas, ii aurà (de) problèmas.
If they donít show up, there will be problems.
The verb téner
hold may be used as an auxiliary in the periphrastic construction
de + past participle with the meaning of continuity, cf.:
Ten sas fenèstras de barradas.
keeps his windows shut.
The verb èsser to
be has various functions:
it links a noun or noun group to a predicative, i.e., a word group indicating
a quality, state or condition, cf.:
Aquestes persècs son los melhors que ai manjat.
These peaches are the best ones
I have eaten.
it is used as an auxiliary for constructing the compound
tenses of the intransitive verbs, cf.:
Soi anat a Marsilha.
I have gone to Marseilles.
it forms the passive voice of the transitive verbs, cf.:
El rei es aimat per son pòble.
The king is loved by his people.
it is used in the periphrastic construction
per + infinitive, which indicates an action in the future, cf.:
Es pas per morir.
He is not going to die.
it is used also in the construction èsser
a + infinitive to denote an action
in progress, cf.:
Èra a se passejar.
He (she) was taking a walk.
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