Conjugation of the Verbs (Conjugação dos Verbos)

Simple Tenses (Tempos Simples)

The verbal endings of Portuguese are easily traceable to the Latin prototypes, at least in writing. By the way, the following considerable changes occured:

The conjugation of the verbs in Portuguese is much similar to that of Spanish, its nearest cognate among the other large modern Romance languages. As compared to Spanish, however, the distinction between the verbs of the 2nd and the 3rd conjugations is much more pronounced in Portuguese, what is due to the fact that the latter has avoided the efects of the pan-Romance diphthongization.
 
 
 
Non-Finite Verbal Forms
 

   

I

II

III

The Present Impersonal Infinitive

amar vender partir

The Gerund Simple

amando vendendo partindo

The Past Passive Participle

amado, a, os, as vendido, a, os, as partido, a, os, as
 
 
 
Finite Verbal Forms
 
The Present Indicative (Presente do Indicativo)
 
 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amo
am
as
am
a
vendo
vend
es
vend
e
parto
partes
parte

Pl.

1
2
3
amamos
am
ais
am
am
vendemos
vend
eis
vend
em
partimos
partis
partem

Formation: It follows pretty well the Latin pattern, except that the intervocalic and the final t in the endings are dropped out. Moreover, the thematic vowels in the 1 person sg. was lost, cf. L. debeo (I) must => Port. devo.

See the Latin Present Indicative.
 

The Imperfect Indicative (Imperfeito do Indicativo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amava
am
avas
am
ava
vendia
vend
ias
vend
ia
partia
partias
partia

Pl.

1
2
3
amavamos
am
avais
am
avam
vendíamos
vend
íais
vend
íam
partíamos
partíais
partíam

Formation: Like in the case of the Present Indicative, it follows pretty well the Latin pattern, except that the intervocalic and the final t and the final -m in the endings are dropped out, cf. L. amabam (I) was loving => Port. amava, L. amabat (he) was loving => Port. amava. Moreover, the intervocalic -b- was softened in -v- in the personal endings of the verbs of the 1st conjugation (cf. the above example) and completely suppresed in the personal endings of the verbs of the  2nd and 3rd conjugation, cf. L. vivebam (I) was living => Port. vivia. See the Latin Imperfect Indicative.

Other Names: Pretérito Imperfeito.
 

The Past Simple Indicative (Perfeito Simples do Indicativo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amei
am
aste
am
ou
vendí
vend
este
vend
eu
partí
partiste
partiu

Pl.

1
2
3
amámos
am
astes
am
aram
vendémos
vend
estes
vend
eram
partímos
partistes
partiram

Formation: The Latin pattern is easily recognizable.The perfect characteristics like -vi-, -u-, -s- etc. were suppresed and thus was established a paradigm of generalized terminations, in which however the thematic vowels (-a-, -e-, -i-) of the conjugations were preserved. Note the development of the 3 p. sg. endings:

See the Latin Perfect Indicative.
Note that to distinguish the 1 p. pl. of the Past Simple Indicative from the Present Indicative, it is written with an acute accent: cf. past amámos
we loved vs. amamos we love.

Other names: Pretérito Perfeito Simples.
 

The Future Indicative (Futuro do Indicativo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amarei
am
arás
am
ará
venderei
vend
erás
vend
erá
partirei
partirás
partirá

Pl.

1
2
3
amaremos
am
areis
am
arão
venderemos
vend
ereis
vend
erão
partiremos
partireis
partirão

Formation: It is derived from the Vulgar Latin modal construction infinitive +the Present Indicative of the auxiliary  habere (Port. haver) to have, which is of a future meaning. In Portuguese writing the forms of haver were appended to the infinitive to make a whole word, cf.: amar hei => amarei, amar has => amarás etc. Note that the initial h- was ommitted and that in the 2 p. pl. the verbal form haveis was shortened to -eis. The two forms are devided, when a personal pronoun is used, cf. :

Escrever-lhe-emos uma carta. We will write him a letter. or We will write you a letter. (polite form).

Other Names: Futuro Imperfeito.
 

The Pluperfect Simple Indicative (Mais-que-parfeito Simples do Indicativo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amara
am
aras
am
ara
vendera
vend
eras
vend
era
partira
partiras
partira

Pl.

1
2
3
amáramos
am
áreis
am
aram
vendéramos
vend
éreis
vend
eram
partíramos
partíreis
partiram

Formation: It inherits the Latin Pluperfect Indicative.

Other Names: Pretérito mais-que-parfeito simples.
 

The Present Subjunctive (Presente do Conjuntivo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
(que) ame
(que) am
es
(que) am
e
(que) venda
(que) vend
as
(que) vend
a
(que) parta
(que)
partas
(que)
parta

Pl.

1
2
3
(que) amemos
(que) am
eis
(que) am
em
(que) vendamos
(que) vend
ais
(que) vend
am
(que) partamos
(que)
partais
(que)
partam

Formation: It follows pretty well the Latin pattern. See the Latin Present Subjunctive.
 

The Imperfect Subjunctive (Imperfeito do Conjuntivo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
(que) amasse
(que) am
asses
(que) am
asse
(que) vendesse
(que) vend
esses
(que) vend
esse
(que) partisse
(que)
partisses
(que)
partisse

Pl.

1
2
3
(que) amássemos
(que) am
ásseis
(que) am
assem
(que) vendéssemos
(que) vend
ésseis
(que) vend
essem
(que) partissemos
(que)
partísseis
(que)
partissem

Formation: It follows pretty well the Latin pattern. See the Latin Imperfect Subjunctive.
 

The Future Subjunctive (Futuro do Conjuntivo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
(que) amar
(que) am
ares
(que) am
ar
(que) vender
(que) vend
eres
(que) vend
er
(que) partir
(que)
partires
(que)
partir

Pl.

1
2
3
(que) amarmos
(que) am
ardes
(que) am
arem
(que) vendermos
(que) vend
erdes
(que) vend
erem
(que) partirmos
(que)
partirdes
(que)
partirem

Formation: This tense was invented in Portuguese. Note that its forms coincides with those of the Personal Simple Infinitive.
 

The Present Conditional (Condicional Presente)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amaria
am
arias
am
aria
vendería
vend
erías
vend
ería
partiría
partirías
partiría

Pl.

1
2
3
amariamos
am
arieis
am
ariam
venderiamos
vend
erieis
vend
eríam
partiriamos
partirieis
partiríam

Formation: It is formed by adding the endings of the Imperfect Indicative to the Present Impersonal Infinitive.

Other Names: Condicional simple, Condicional do Indicativo.
 

The Simple Personal Infinitive (Infinitivo Pessoal Simples)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
amar
am
ares
am
ar
vender
vend
eres
vend
er
partir
partires
partir

Pl.

1
2
3
amarmos
am
ardes
am
arem
vendermos
vend
erdes
vend
erem
partirmos
partirdes
partirem

Formation: This tense was invented in Portuguese.
 

The Present Imperative (Presente do Imperativo)
 

 

I

II

III

Sg.

1
2
3
-
am
a!
am
e!
-
vend
e!
vend
a!
-
parte!
parta!

Pl.

1
2
3
amemos!
am
ai!
am
em!
vendamos!
vend
ei!
vend
am!
partamos!
parti!
partam!

Formation: The forms of the 2 p. sg. and pl. inherit the Latin Present Imperative.
The other imperative forms are borrowed from the
Present Subjunctive.

Note that in the negative are used the forms of the Present Subjunctive only, cf.:

Não ames! Do not love (you)!
Não ame!
Não amemos!
Não ameis!
Não amem!


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