Verb


The verbal endings differ only slightly from the modern Spanish.

Both the simple and the compound form of the conditional mood, refered as present and present perfect, are of present meaning, cf.:

The passive forms, constructed with ser and the past participle, are rarely used.

It is to notify the opposition between singular and plural in the 3rd p. of the reflexive infinitive and gerund forms, cf.:

The old Spanish pluperfect in -ra is peserved in the speech. The future tense is expressed usually by the periphrastic construction ir a + infinitive.

Under the influence of the Balkan languages the usage of the infinitive was substituted by the subjunctive, cf.:

The above examples have their counterparts in Rumanian.

For its part the subjunctive was substituted by the indicative in the subordinite clauses introduced by verbs of emotion, the comparative komu ke as if etc.

The dialects of Macedonia has a personal infinitive, as in Galician and Portuguese, cf.:

In Thessalonika and Bitola the gerund was preceded always by en, and the usual gerund form served as imperative in plural unless there were not clitical pronouns (la, le, lo). With the clitical pronouns there was used the plural form of the imperative, for both singular and plural, and there occured a metathesis -dl- => -ld-, cf.: The main periphrastic constructions are:
  1. estar / ir + gerund (of progressibve meaning);
  2. venir de + infinitive (recently completed action -- borrowed from French);
  3. tornar i + personal infinitive (repeated action -- a calque from Hebrew), cf.:

  4. Vos invitamos a tornar i escucharmos.
    We invite you to listen to us again.

Negation

The negative pronouns and adverbs require the usage of the negative particle no regardless the place of the verb (double negation), cf.:


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