Conjugation of the Verbs (Conjugación de los Verbos)

Simple Tenses (Tiempos Simples)



Generally, the personal endings of the Spanish verbal forms agree pretty well with the Latin prototypes. The following major changes, that occured in the evolution of Spanish, are to be mentioned:

Note that except for the 1 and 2 persons pl. of the Present Indicative and the 2 person pl. of the Present Imperative the verbs of the 2nd and the 3rd conjugations have identical personal endings. As a matter of fact, the distinction between the conjugational pattern was blurred by the effect of the pan-Romance diphthongization. In this Spanish fundamentally differs from the closely cognate Portuguese language, where the diphthongizatiion was avoided and the differences between the 2nd and 3rd conjugatiions were clearly preserved.
 
 

Non-Finite Verbal Forms
 
_
I
II
III
The Present Infinitive
amar vender vivir
The Gerund
amando vendiendo viviendo
The Past Passive Participle
amado, a, os, as vendido, a, os, as vivido, a, os, as

 

Finite Verbal Forms

The Present Indicative (Presente del Indicativo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
amo
amas
ama
vendo
vendes
vende
vivo
vives
vive
Pl.
1
2
3
amamos
amáis
aman
vendemos
vendéis
venden
vivimos
vivís
viven

Formation: It follows pretty well the Latin pattern, except that the intervocalic and the final t in the endings are dropped out. Moreover, the thematic vowels in the 1 person sg. was lost, cf. L. debeo (I) must > Sp. debo. See the Latin Present Indicative.
 

The Imperfect Indicative (Imperfecto del Indicativo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
amaba
amabas
amaba
vendía
vendías
vendía
vivía
vivías
vivía
Pl.
1
2
3
amabamos
amabais
amaban
vendíamos
vendíais
vendían
vivíamos
vivíais
vivían

Formation: Like in the case of the Present Indicative, it follows pretty well the Latin pattern, except that the intervocalic and the final t and the final -m in the endings are dropped out, cf. L. amabam (I) was loving > Sp. amaba, L. amabat (he) was loving > Sp. amaba. Moreover, the intervocalic -b- was suppresed in the personal endings of the 2nd and 3d conjugation verbs, cf. L. vivebam (I) was living > Sp. vivía. See the Latin Imperfect Indicative.

Other Names: Pretérito Imperfecto.
 

The Past Simple Indicative (Perfecto Simple del Indicativo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
amé
amaste
amó
vendí
vendiste
vend
viví
viviste
viv
Pl.
1
2
3
amamos
amasteis
amaron
vendimos
vendisteis
vendieron
vivimos
vivisteis
vivieron

Formation: The Latin pattern is easily recognizable, the characteristics like -vi-, -u-, -s- etc. however being suppresed, thus establishing a paradigm of generalized terminations (note especially the -ó in the 3 p. sg., which developed from CL. amavit > VL. amau(t), due to the syncope of the short unstressed -i-, > Sp. amó). See the Latin Perfect Indicative.

Other names: Pretérito Perfecto Simple, Pretérito Perfecto or Pretérito Indefinido.
 

The Future Indicative (Futuro del Indicativo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
amaré
amarás
amará
venderé
venderás
venderá
viviré
vivirás
vivirá
Pl.
1
2
3
amaremos
amaréis
amarán
venderemos
venderéis
venderán
viviremos
viviréis
vivirán

Formation: It is derived from the Vulgar Latin modal construction infinitive +the Present Indicative of the auxiliary  habêre (Sp. haber) to have, which is of a future meaning. In Spanish writing the forms of haber were appended to the infinitive to make a whole word, cf.: amar he > amaré, amar has > amarás etc. Note that the initial h- was ommitted and that in the 2 p. pl. the verbal form habéis was shortened to -éis.

Other Names: Futuro Imperfecto.

See the List of Irregular Future Indicative and Imperfect Conditional verbal forms.
 

The Present Subjunctive (Presente del Subjuntivo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
(que) ame
(que) ames
(que) ame
(que) venda
(que) vendas
(que) venda
(que) viva
(que) vivas
(que) viva
Pl.
1
2
3
(que) amemos
(que) améis
(que) amen
(que) vendamos
(que) vendáis
(que) vendan
(que) vivamos
(que) viváis
(que) vivan

Formation: It follows pretty well the Latin pattern. See the Latin Present Subjunctive.

On the historical development see Subjunctive: Evolution from Classical Latin to Spanish.
 

The First Imperfect Subjunctive (Imperfecto Primo del Subjuntivo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
(que) amase
(que) amases
(que) amase
(que) vendiese
(que) vendieses
(que) vendiese
(que) viviese
(que) vivieses
(que) viviese
Pl.
1
2
3
(que) amásemos
(que) amaseis
(que) amasen
(que) vendiésemos
(que) vendieseis
(que) vendiesen
(que) viviésemos
(que) vivieseis
(que) viviesen

Formation: This tense developed from the Latin Pluperfect Subjunctive.

On the historical development see Subjunctive: Evolution from Classical Latin to Spanish.
 

The Second Imperfect Subjunctive (Imperfecto Segundo del Subjuntivo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
(que) amara
(que) amaras
(que) amara
(que) vendiera
(que) vendieras
(que) vendiera
(que) viviera
(que) vivieras
(que) viviera
Pl.
1
2
3
(que) amáramos
(que) amarais
(que) amaran
(que) vendiéramos
(que) vendierais
(que) vendieran
(que) viviéramos
(que) vivierais
(que) vivieran

Formation: This tense developed from the Latin Imperfect Subjunctive.

Other Names: Condicional del Subjuntivo.

On the historical development see Subjunctive: Evolution from Classical Latin to Spanish.
 

The Future Subjunctive (Futuro del Subjuntivo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
(que) amare
(que) amares
(que) amare
(que) vendiere
(que) vendieres
(que) vendiere
(que) viviere
(que) vivieres
(que) viviere
Pl.
1
2
3
(que) amáremos
(que) amareis
(que) amaren
(que) vendiéremos
(que) vendiereis
(que) vendieren
(que) viviéremos
(que) viviereis
(que) vivieren

Formation: This tense was developed from a confusion of the Latin Future Perfect Indicative and Perfect Subjunctive.

On the historical development see Subjunctive: Evolution from Classical Latin to Spanish.
 

The Imperfect Conditional (Condicional Imperfecto)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
amaría
amarías
amaría
vendería
venderías
vendería
viviría
vivirías
viviría
Pl.
1
2
3
amaríamos
amaríais
amarían
venderíamos
venderíais
venderían
viviríamos
viviríais
vivirían

Formation: It is formed by adding the endings of the Imperfect Indicative to the Present Infinitive.

Other Names: Condicional simple, Condicional del Indicativo.

See the List of Irregular Future Indicative and Imperfect Conditional verbal forms.
 

The Present Imperative (Presente del Imperativo)
 
_
I
II
III
Sg.
1
2
3
-
¡ama!
¡ame!
-
¡vende!
¡venda!
-
¡vive!
¡viva!
Pl.
1
2
3
¡amemos!
¡amad!
¡amen!
¡vendamos!
¡vended!
¡vendan!
¡vivamos!
¡vivid!
¡vivan!

Formation: The forms of the 2 p. sg. and pl. inherit the Latin Present Imperative; note that the Latin intervocalic -t- in the ending for the 2 p. pl. is voiced in Spanish in -d, cf. L. amâte! > Sp. ¡amad!
The other imperative forms are borrowed from the Present Subjunctive.

Note that in the negative are used the forms of the Present Subjunctive only, cf.:

¡No ames! Do not love (you)!
¡No ame!
¡No amemos!
¡No ameis!
¡No amen!

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