Subjunctive: Evolution from Classical Latin to Spanish

by María Constanza Pérez

Evolution of the Subjunctive: Summary Table

 
 
 Latin
Vulgar Latin
 Spanish
 

Present Subjunctive

amem
 

(survived)
 

Present Subjunctive

ame 
 

 

Imperfect Subjunctive

amarem
 

 

(disappeared)

Plpf. Ind. amaveram => amara
 

 

Imperfect Subjunctive I

amara
 

 

Present Perfect Subjunctive

amaverim
 

(lost original functions)

habere + past. pass. part.

 

Present Perfect Subjunctive

haya cantado
 

 

Past Perfect (Pluperfect) Subj.

amavissem (synthetic)

 

Past Subjunctive

reduced to amasse(m)
 

Analytical tenses

habere + past. pass. part.

 

Imperfect Subj. II (synthetic)

amase
 

Pluperfect Subj. (analytical)

hubiera amado
hubiese amado
 

 

Future Perfect Indicative

amavero
 

Perfect Subjunctive

amaverim
 

Future Subjunctive

(from the confusion of both)

Future Subjunctive

amare


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