Glossæ Æmilianensæ

Published in Ramón Menendéz Pidal, Orígenes del español (3ª ed.), Madrid 1950, pp. 3-9.



The first examples of the Romace speech of Castilia appear in the interlinear or marginal annotations (glossae) to the Latin texts copied by the monks of the monastery of San Millan de la Cogolla in the region of La Rioja. The glossae give brief explanations of a difficult or obscure word in the Latin text by a simpler Latin synonym or vernacular expression. Thus in the Latin manuscript Aemilianensis 60 we may find a lot of Latin synonyms:
 
Latin

bellum
diuisiones
jncolomes
adulterium 
criminis 
jmperium 
certamina 
inermis

Gloss Nº

[pugna] (4)
[partitjones] (16)
[sanos et salvos] (30)
[fornicatjonem] (46) 
[peccatos] (81) 
[mandatjione] (89) 
[pugna] (96) 
[sine arma] (97)

Modern Castilian Spanish

lucha 
divisiones, partes incólumes intactos 
infidelidad, adulterio 
pecados 
mando
lucha
indefenso, desarmado

A few words and expressions were glossed in Basque (Euskera), the old peninsular language preserved in the northern mountains (by the way, these are its oldest written examples):
 
Latin

jnueniri meruimur 
precipitemur

Gloss Nº

[jzioqui dugu] (31) 
[guec ajutuezdugu] (42)

Modern Castilian Spanish

hemos encendido, 
nosotros no nos arrojamos

The word precipitemur is explained in Romance also:
 
Latin

precipitemur

Gloss Nº

[nos non kaigamus] (43)

Modern Castilian Spanish

nosotros no nos arrojamos

The most glosses are written to explain the Latin words in the contemporary local Romance:
 
Latin

submersi 
indica
caracterem 
cursiles

Gloss Nº

[trastorne] (8) 
[amuestra] (11) 
[seingnale] (26) 
[correnteros] (28)

Modern Castilian Spanish

trastorné
muestra, explica
señal, signo, marca
corrientes, torrentes

The most interesting of them are those that translate whole Latin phrases, giving the modern scientists the chance to see the structure of the local Romance:
 
LATÍN

Et tertius(...) ueniens
pauperibus reddet 
tu jpse es

Gloss Nº

[elo terzero diabolo uenot] (9)
[qui dat alos misquinos] (48) 
[tu eleisco jes] (138)

Modern Castilian Spanish

y el tercer diablo dijo...
que da a los pobres
tú mismo eres

The largest example of this kind is the doxology (the gloss 89) after the sermon of St. Augustine. Initially it merely translates the Latin texts (Abjubante domino nostro Jhesu Christo cui est honor et jmperium cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto jn secula seculorum), but later an additional phrase is included (we use bold characters to mark it):
 
Gloss Nº 89

Cono aujtorio de nuestro
dueno. dueno Christo. dueno
salbatore qual dueno
get. ena honore. e qual
dueno tienet .ela
mandatjone. cono
patre cono spiritu sancto
enos sieculos. de lo siecu
los. facanos deus omnipotes
tal serbitjio fere. ke
denante ela sua face
gaudioso segamus. Amen

Modern Castilian Spanish

Con la ayuda de Nuestro 
Señor, Señor Jesucristo, Señor
Salvador, el cual Señor
está en el honor y el cual
Señor tiene el
mandato con 
el Padre y con el Espíritu Santo por los siglos de los sig
los. Háganos Dios omnipotente 
tal servicio que
ante su haz
gozosos sigamos. Amén.

The complete version of the Latin text follows, with the glosses in brackets:
 

Incipit interrogatio de nobissimo

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