Verb (Verbo)

Venetan has developed peculiar changes from the Latin verbal system. The verbs are classified according to the  pattern of their infinitive endings into 3 groups or conjugations (q.v.): the 2nd and 3rd Latin conjugations fall into the 2nd conjugation, in Venetan, as their endings have coincided in the evolution of the language (the infinitives have, however, preserved the different position of the stress, just as in Latin). The 4th Latin conjugation corresponds to the 3rd one in Venetan and most of its verbs have incorporated the inchoative suffix -s- (from Latins -sc-) in the present tense (see Latin inchoative verbs). The Latin -io verbs were absorbed into the -i conjugation (in Latin it was the 4th and in Venetan it is the 3rd conjugation).

The conjugations are as follows:
 
I conjugation:
-ar
II conjugation:
III conjugation:
-ir
-er
'-ar(e)
stressed on the
ultimate syllable
stressed on the
(pen)ultimate syllable
plain stems
+ -s-
scoltar to listen
parlar  to speak
catar  to find
vardar  to look at
tegner  to fear
temer  to fear
poder  to be able
saver  to know
bévar(e)  to run
pèrdar(e)  to loose
lèxar(e)  to read
scrìvar(e)  to write
partir to part, go
dormir to sleep
morir  to die
sentir  to hear/smell
finir  to finish
colpir   to hit
reagir   to react
conpir  to be .. years

Venetan has a semi-inflected (or semi-analytical) verb flexion because some persons are marked by verbal endings as in Italian or Spanish, and other persons (2.p.sg., 3rd p. sg./pl.) are marked by pronouns as in French: this happened as the Latin terminations disappeared in the course of the phonetic evolution. In fact, as the Latin endings -s, -t, -nt have been dropped, the 3rd p. sg. has always the same desinence as the 3rd p. pl., and the 2nd p. sg. can correspond to the 2nd p. pl. or to the 3rd p.sg./pl., according to the Venetan variant.

In comparison with the other Romance languages there are very few irregular verbs in Venetan, as many of them have been "regularized" or developed regular forms as an alternative to the irregular ones.

There is a group of some semi-irregular monosyllabic verbs (ndar/nar to go, dar to give, and star to stay, far to make / do, dir to say) falling in the 1st or 3rd conjugation, but often behaving as verbs of the 2nd. Most of them have a regular pattern besides the irregular ones. The verb trar to cast, and the verbs ending in –dur (like tradur to translate) also fall in the 2nd conjugation as they developed from the contracted forms of the Latin athematic verbs (in Latin grammar they formed the 3rd conjugation). The verbs vegner to come/become and tegner to hold also developed some contracted forms.

Many verbs of the 2nd conjugation, especially those stressed on the antepenultimate syllable (i.e. on the stem) have one irregular forms of the Past Participle. The 3rd conjugation also contains some irregular verbs.

In modern Venetan the development of the 2nd conjugation is practically frozen, while the 1st conjugation is permanently expanding by new derivatives.

There are 4 simple tenses (q.v.) in Venetan: the Present ZZZ(q.v.), the Past (always compound) (q.v.), the Imperfect (q.v.) and the Future (q.v.). The compound tenses are constructed with the auxiliary (q.v.) aver to have and the past passive participle; a few intransitive verbs (as vegner to come, nar/ndar to go, partir to part, morir to die etc.) are conjugated in the compound tenses with èser to be; in this Venetan is similar to French and Italian.

All the reflexive (pronominal) verbs require the auxiliary aver in compound tenses as in Catalan, Spanish or Portuguese.

Venetan has 7 verbal moods (q.v.) -- indicative (q.v.), subjunctive (q.v.), imperative (q.v.), infinitive (q.v.), gerund (q.v.), participle (q.v.) and potential (q.v.) (or conditional) mood. As compared with Latin, Venetan lost the Future Imperative. The Latin present participle has disappeared and is replaced in Venetan by the periphrastic construction drio + infinitive after (busy in) ...-ing which is of progressive meaning. This present participle is used in the construction èser drio + infinitve to be after (about) to to form the progressive tenses wich are more frequently used than in Italian, French, Portuguese and follow rather the English pattern (for example to the Italian past conditional construction sarei stato mangiando I'd have been eating in Venetan corresponds sarìa stà drio magnar with the progressive form). The Latin future participles have only sporadically survived as verbal adjectives (like futuro future).

Verbs have, also, an interrogative flexion used when asking direct questions.which is derived from an old inverted contruction Verb + pronoun.

The passive voice (q.v.) is formed analytically with the auxiliary èser to be and the past passive participle.

The polite address requires the verb to be used in the 3rd p. sg. / pl. with masculine or feminine pronoun elo (lu) he, ela she, luri/lóre they or in the 2nd p. pl. with the pronoun Vu You (the latter construction is considered now old-fashioned). Generally, the 3rd p. imperative must be introduced by che that because it's borrowed from subjunctive, but the 3rd p. polite imperative is never preceded by this particle.
 
 


Next Topic
Previous Topic

Descriptive Venetan Grammar
Venetan Language Main Page

Modern Romance Languages Main Page
Orbis Latinus Main Page

This page is part of Orbis Latinus
© Zdravko Batzarov