Venetan has developed peculiar changes from the Latin verbal system. The verbs are classified according to the pattern of their infinitive endings into 3 groups or conjugations (q.v.): the 2nd and 3rd Latin conjugations fall into the 2nd conjugation, in Venetan, as their endings have coincided in the evolution of the language (the infinitives have, however, preserved the different position of the stress, just as in Latin). The 4th Latin conjugation corresponds to the 3rd one in Venetan and most of its verbs have incorporated the inchoative suffix -s- (from Latins -sc-) in the present tense (see Latin inchoative verbs). The Latin -io verbs were absorbed into the -i conjugation (in Latin it was the 4th and in Venetan it is the 3rd conjugation).
The conjugations are as follows:
parlar to speak
catar to find
vardar to look at
temer to fear
poder to be able
saver to know
pèrdar(e) to loose
lèxar(e) to read
scrìvar(e) to write
dormir to sleep
morir to die
sentir to hear/smell
colpir to hit
reagir to react
conpir to be .. years
Venetan has a semi-inflected (or semi-analytical) verb flexion because some persons are marked by verbal endings as in Italian or Spanish, and other persons (2.p.sg., 3rd p. sg./pl.) are marked by pronouns as in French: this happened as the Latin terminations disappeared in the course of the phonetic evolution. In fact, as the Latin endings -s, -t, -nt have been dropped, the 3rd p. sg. has always the same desinence as the 3rd p. pl., and the 2nd p. sg. can correspond to the 2nd p. pl. or to the 3rd p.sg./pl., according to the Venetan variant.
There is a group of some semi-irregular monosyllabic verbs (ndar/nar to go, dar to give, and star to stay, far to make / do, dir to say) falling in the 1st or 3rd conjugation, but often behaving as verbs of the 2nd. Most of them have a regular pattern besides the irregular ones. The verb trar to cast, and the verbs ending in –dur (like tradur to translate) also fall in the 2nd conjugation as they developed from the contracted forms of the Latin athematic verbs (in Latin grammar they formed the 3rd conjugation). The verbs vegner to come/become and tegner to hold also developed some contracted forms.
Many verbs of the 2nd conjugation, especially those stressed on the antepenultimate syllable (i.e. on the stem) have one irregular forms of the Past Participle. The 3rd conjugation also contains some irregular verbs.
There are 4 simple tenses (q.v.) in Venetan: the Present ZZZ(q.v.), the Past (always compound) (q.v.), the Imperfect (q.v.) and the Future (q.v.). The compound tenses are constructed with the auxiliary (q.v.) aver to have and the past passive participle; a few intransitive verbs (as vegner to come, nar/ndar to go, partir to part, morir to die etc.) are conjugated in the compound tenses with èser to be; in this Venetan is similar to French and Italian.
All the reflexive (pronominal) verbs require the auxiliary aver in compound tenses as in Catalan, Spanish or Portuguese.
Venetan has 7 verbal moods (q.v.) -- indicative (q.v.), subjunctive (q.v.), imperative (q.v.), infinitive (q.v.), gerund (q.v.), participle (q.v.) and potential (q.v.) (or conditional) mood. As compared with Latin, Venetan lost the Future Imperative. The Latin present participle has disappeared and is replaced in Venetan by the periphrastic construction drio + infinitive after (busy in) ...-ing which is of progressive meaning. This present participle is used in the construction èser drio + infinitve to be after (about) to to form the progressive tenses wich are more frequently used than in Italian, French, Portuguese and follow rather the English pattern (for example to the Italian past conditional construction sarei stato mangiando I'd have been eating in Venetan corresponds sarìa stà drio magnar with the progressive form). The Latin future participles have only sporadically survived as verbal adjectives (like futuro future).
Verbs have, also, an interrogative flexion used when asking direct questions.which is derived from an old inverted contruction Verb + pronoun.
The passive voice (q.v.) is formed analytically with the auxiliary èser to be and the past passive participle.
The polite address requires the verb to be used in the 3rd p. sg.
/ pl. with masculine or feminine pronoun e
( lu) he, e la
or in the 2nd p. pl. with the
pronoun Vu You
(the latter construction
is considered now old-fashioned). Generally, the 3rd p. imperative
must be introduced by che that because
it's borrowed from subjunctive, but the 3rd p. polite imperative is never
preceded by this particle.
Venetan Language Main Page
Orbis Latinus Main Page
This page is part of Orbis
© Zdravko Batzarov