Area of Distribution and Number of Speakers
Venetan (Vèneto) is a Romance language spoken in North-Eastern Italy (mainly in the province of Veneto), on the adjacent Istrian peninsula (Croatia and Slovenia), and in the state of Rio-do-Sul (Brazil).
There live about 4,487,560 people in Veneto and half of them currently speaks Venetan (2,109,502 according to 1976 census) while nearly everybody can understand it. Venetan was used on the coasts of Slovenia and Croatia during the domination of the Serenìsima Repùblica (fallen in 1797), but people can understand it even today. The emigrants from Veneto in the early 1900s brought the language to Brazil where it became a koine (q.v.) for all Italians there (it is called Talian or Vêneto Brasileiro).
Origin and History
The ancient population of Veneto seems to have shared some Slavic features but modern Venetan derives from Vulgar Latin which replaced most of the local Italic languages after the Roman conquest. During the Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta (Republic of Venice), the Venetian variant of Venetan was the official language and it was well-known around Europe. In this period Venetan was brought to Dalmatia (the litoral of modern Slovenia and Croatia) and was used as a commerce language in the Mediterranean region and evidently it contributed largely to the formation of the Lingua Franca, the famous pidgin spoken along the Mediterranean coasts till 1800.
The Indovinello Veronese, considered to be one of the first written documents in Italian vulgar languageis, shows some linguistic features typical of Venetan. In the past, a lot of literary works were written in Venetan, though the best known author, the dramatist Carlo Goldoni, wrote it "in an Italian way" (that is with Italian orthography -- for instance he changed diexe ten into diese thus avoiding the old letter x). During the domination of the Habsburgs Venetan was still the language of the navy even if the language of the Government was German.
See Italian language.
According to some opinion polls in Veneto the local language is most widely used (85% and even more in some situations): but the main fact is that it is used in all domains. One of the reasons for this “survival” can be found in the geographical structure of the region, that has no real leading town; most of the towns are under 10,000 inhabitants, and the rest are between 10,000 and 25,000 (apart from the few big towns): it is known that in towns under 30,000 the local language tends to keep its vitality, which increases as the number of inhabitants decreases. Moreover Venetan is the only language in the territory mastered actively by large strata of the population.
During the post war
decades a lot of work was done to italianize Venetan speakers, and some
generations were taken to the point of being ashamed of their so called
“dialect” (Italian government considers Venetan a "dialect", and
not a language to protect).
lian se no te senbri ignorante!»
Italian or you'll sound ignorant!»
has been a common advise
from parents to children for a long time and even in schools. As unill
the mid 1960s Veneto was a poor region, it was usual in films brodcast
on the national Italian TV Venetan to appear to be spoken from men-servants.
Today there is a new conscience of the necessity of asserting one's cultural background, and so the problem of the local language re-emerges. In some cases it is dealt with as an instrument for refined poetry, at a level which is widely recognized as having nothing to do with provinciality; in other cases, above all on the part of mass media and public organizations, the local language/culture is viewed in a folkloristic perspective. There is a third position, that tends to revive Venetan as a memory of things gone, and adopts an old-fashioned and purist attitude. The renewed interest in Venetan as a written language is creating some problems with spelling and the individuation of a koiné.
The dynamic situation of the interaction between Venetan, Italian and the particular variety known as “Popular Italian” (spoken by people who have Venetan as their mother tongue and have learnt standard Italian imperfectly), and the fact that the often prophesized death of “dialects” is still far to come, make Venetan of high sociolinguistic interest. Recently more and more Venetans are interested in their language and one can hear children speaking Venetan to their parents (even in medium towns!) but a standard language has not been developed yet and everybody writes "in its own way" and a lot of books are printed using Italian orthography (cf. Ven. mezo vs. It. mezzo mid, middle, Ven. stazion vs. It. stazione station).
There are some local radios broadcasting in Venetan, but the regional TV still uses only Italian.
Dante distinguished in the 13th century three varieties of Venetan, while the modern linguists discern up to five different dialects:
The phonetic system of Venetan is quite similar to West-Romance languages like Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, French and Occitan. It resembles particularly the Spanish one.
In Venetan there are 7 vowels a, i, u, o (open-o), ó (closed-o), e (open-e), é (closed-e). Final vowels can be dropped according to the spoken variant: Trevisan and Bellunese drop vowels very often, Venetian and Veronese drop them only after n, l, r; while central Venetan drops e, o only after n, cf.:
The final -i often produces vowel change, cf.:
Accent is free and may fall on the ultimate, penultimate or antepenultimate syllable. Its place is recognizable from orthography. Words ending in consonant always have the accent on the last vowel, thus saver = [sa'ver], nathion = [najon].
As in Spanish, the Latin consonants c between vowels is voiced to g in Venetan, cf.:
CL amic|um friend => Ven. amigo;Consonants p between vowels is voiced to b => v => [no sound] in Venetan, cf.:
CL foc|um fire => Ven. fógo.
CL sapere to be tasteful / to be wise => Ven. saver to know;Consonants t between vowels is voiced to d => [no sound] in Venetan, cf.:
CL scopa broom =>Ven. scóa.
CL potere to be able => Ven. poder;See also the Development of Latin Intervocalic p and t in Romance Languages.
CL rota broom => Ven. roda / rua (<= róa).
The intervocalic -b- tends to become v, cf.
CL habere to have => Ven. aver;The consonant clusters ct, pt are transformed to t, cf.:
CL cantaba|m/t (I/he) was singing => Ven. cantava.
CL octo eight => Ven. oto,See also the Results of Palatalization of Consonant Clusters.
CL captare to catch => Ven. catar to find.
The clusters cl / tl , gl , fl , pl are palatalized to ci, gi , fi, pi, cf.:
VL clamo (I) call => Ven. ciamo,The clusters scl / stl / schi , sgl / sghi are palatalized to s-ci , sgi cf.:
CL vetulu|s old => VL *vetlo => *veclo => Ven. vecio,
CL glacies ice => Ven. giaso,
VL flor(e) flower => Ven. fior,
VL pleno full => Ven. pien.
CL fistulare => VL *fistlare => *fisclare to play the bagpipe => Ven. fis-ciar to whistle;(The old greeting sclavo [your] slave became s-ciavo => s-ciao => ciao...)
ML sclav|us slave => Ven. s-ciavo.
VL sglaciare to thaw (ice) => Ven. sgiasar, desgiasar.
The clusters ali, eli, ili, oli, uli are transformed to aj ej, ij , oj, uj (j is pronounced as [d] in Venice or as short semivocalic [j]), cf.:
CL ali|um garlic => Ven. ajo,The l between vowels (sometimes at the beginning of a word) becomes
CL ole|um oil => olio => Ven. ojo,
CL mulier woman => Ven. mojer wife etc.
CL illa balla the ball => Ven.The clusters mb, mp change into nb, np, cf.:
la ba la,
CL ille caballo the horse =>Ven. el cava
CL ille shole the schools => Ven.
le scó le.
VL camp|us field => Ven. canpo.The cluster mr is divided by epenthetic -d- or -a- and become mbr => nbr or mar, cf.:
VL camera room => Ven. canbra / càmara.The cluster nr is divided by epenthetic -d- or -a- and become ndr or nar, cf.:
VL cinere ash => Ven. séndre / sénare.The consonants g / di and the semiconsonantic -i- become d =[d], [ð] or x =[z], cf.:
VL gente(m) people -> Ven. xente ['zente], ['ðente];The consonants c / ti become th / s =[s], cf.:
VL ioc|us game -> Ven. xugo / dugo ['sugo], ['dugo], ['ðugo];
VL medio mid(dle) -> Ven. mexo / medo ['mezo], ['meðo], ['mezo].
VL cento a hundred => Ven. sento ['sento], ['ento];Sometimes the resulting voiceless s changes into a voiced x, cf.:
VL cerclo circle => Ven. sércio
CL cingula(m) strap => Ven. séngia strap/thong/belt
VL platea square => platia => Ven. piasa ['pjasa], ['pjaa];
VL mancantia lack => Ven. mancansa [man'kansa], [man'kana].
VL voce voice => Ven. vóse / vóxe ['vose], ['voze];See also the Phonology of Spanish.
VL place pleases => Ven. piaxe ['pjaze] (to) like it/them;
VL pace peace => Ven. paxe ['paze] (through the old form pase ['pase]).
Venetan retains many grammatical forms of Latin. The loss of some verbal endings brought about an extensive usage of the personal pronouns and in this way there appeared a semi-analytical flexion. There are also special endings for the interrogative flexion. The progressive tenses are widely used as compared with the other Romance languages (e.g. there is a Future Compound Progressive of dubitative meaning, which is absent in Italian).
On the other hand the compound tenses are constructed with the verb aver to have and èser to be just as in French (see...) and Italian (see...), while the reflexive and pronominal verbs always have the auxiliary aver as in Ibero-Romance languages.
A great number of nouns have the distinctive endings of -a for the feminine form and -o for the masculine form, corresponding to Latin nouns of the first and second declensions, respectively.
The core of the Vnetan vocabulary is inherited from the Vulgar Latin but it shows words deriving from Germanic and from Greek, due to the long commercial relations between Venezia and Greece (e.g. piron fork comes from the Greek verb peírô to stick). On the oher hand, Venetan words have been borrowed in modern Greek and Albanian. It also retain some particular word existing in Catalan (or French), cf. Ven. goto glass and Cat. got, Ven. pare/mare father/mother and Cat. pare/mare, Ven. tamixo sieve and Cat. tamís, Ven. sóga rope and Cat. soga, Ven. masa too much/many vs.Cat. massa.
Like other languages, Venetan has borrowed
a lot of words from Arabic.(e.g. Ven. naransa
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