General Notions

Nouns in Occitan are classified as masculine and feminine.

The Feminine

As a rule, all nouns ending in -a are feminine, and the others are masculine. Note that this final -a is pronounced [].

There are however many exceptions: words in -ista can be masculine as well as feminine: ecologista is either a man or a woman; and there are many simple feminine words ending in a consonant, like mar sea, for instance.

Generally, the feminine forms of nouns and adjectives are derived by adding an -a at the end of the words (as in Spanish), cf.:

The final consonant of the derived feminines is usually voiced, cf.: In some cases the feminines restore a consonant that is vocalized in masculine, or add special suffixes, cf.:


Generally, the plural is made by adding -s to the nouns and adjectives. There exist, however, a lot of varieties concerning the different types of word endings as well as the dialects.

In the following lines we'll make an overview of the plural forms in the main Occitan dialects, Languedocian (Lengadocian) and Vivaro-Alpine (Central Alpine):

There occur a lot of particularities in dependence of the various word terminations:
  1. Words terminated in sg. by -s, -ç, -sc, -st, -x, -xt, -tz, -ch, -g [=Engl. sh], -sh, -z form plural by adding -es, cf.:
  2. Note that according to the rules of the graphic accentuation -às, -és, -ís, -ós, -ús are transformed into -ases -eses -ises -oses -uses, cf.: In some cases the final -s is doubled in plural (-sses), cf.: According to the rules of the graphic accentuation -às -és -ís -ós -ús become in plural -asses -esses -isses -osses -usses, cf.: There occur also the following orthographic modifications in plural:
    => -ces, cf.: -sc => -sques, cf.: -st => -stes, cf.: -x => -xes, cf.: -xt => -xtes, cf.: -tz => -ses, cf.: -ch => -ches, cf.: -g [=E. sh] => -ges, cf.: Note that in a few words the final -g is pronounced [k] and then the plural is formed according to the general rule, i.e. by adding -s, cf.: -sh => -shes, cf.: The words in -sh are rare and are borrowed recently.
    -z => -zes, cf.: The words in -z are rare and are borrowed recently; note that the final -z is pronounced [s].
  3. The words terminated in sg. by -as, -es, -is, -os, -us and stressed on the penultimate syllable remain unchanged in plural, cf.:
  4. A few adjectives and pronouns form irregular plural by -es, cf.:


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