Contemporary Writing

Since the 19th century the non-religious texts in Judeo-Spanish are usually written in Latin characters.

Initially no specific orthographic system was established, but the rules for writing French, Italian, Spanish, Turkish or even English were applied according to the background of the authors.

Nowadays a orthography based on exclusively phonetic principles is widespread among the Judeo-Spanish communities in the world. This orthography is not completely standardized and in sharp contras to the conventions of the modern Spanish language it makes no distinction, for instance, between the hard c, k and q (all being rendered by k), or between the soft c and s (both rendered by s only).


A a
B b
D d
E e
F f
G g
H h
I i
Phonetic Value
[h], [x]
[i], [j]
J j
K k
L l
M m
N n 
O o
P p
R r
Phonetic Value
S s
T t
U u
V v
X x
Y y
Z z
Phonetic Value
[s], [z]
[u], [w]
[v] or [ß]
[z], []



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