The verbal endings differ only slightly from the modern Spanish.
Both the simple and the compound form of the conditional mood, refered
as present and present perfect, are of present meaning, cf.:
The passive forms, constructed with ser and the past participle, are rarely
yevaría = avía a yevar I would
It is to notify the opposition between singular and plural in the 3rd
p. of the reflexive infinitive and gerund forms, cf.:
The old Spanish pluperfect in -ra is peserved in the speech. The future
tense is expressed usually by the periphrastic construction ir a + infinitive.
kere lavarse he want to wash himself
vs. keren lavarsen they want to
Under the influence of the Balkan languages the usage of the infinitive
was substituted by the subjunctive, cf.:
The above examples have their counterparts in Rumanian.
kale azer => kale ke aga it must do;
ke azer? => ké ke aga? what to do?
For its part the subjunctive was substituted by the indicative in the
subordinite clauses introduced by verbs of emotion, the comparative komu
ke as if etc.
The dialects of Macedonia has a personal infinitive, as in Galician
and Portuguese, cf.:
In Thessalonika and Bitola the gerund was preceded always by en,
and the usual gerund form served as imperative in plural unless there were
not clitical pronouns (la, le, lo). With the clitical pronouns there
was used the plural form of the imperative, for both singular and plural,
and there occured a metathesis -dl- => -ld-, cf.:
... ke no me eches en olvido de me mandares letras.
... in order not to forget to send me letters.
The main periphrastic constructions are:
kantalda (=kantad-la) sing it;
traeldo (traed-lo) bring it;
dezilde (=dezid-le) say him.
estar / ir + gerund (of progressibve meaning);
venir de + infinitive (recently completed action -- borrowed from French);
tornar i + personal infinitive (repeated action -- a calque from Hebrew),
Vos invitamos a tornar i escucharmos.
We invite you to listen to us again.
The negative pronouns and adverbs require the usage of the negative particle
no regardless the place of the verb (double negation), cf.:
JSp. Ninguno no vino. = Sp. Nadie vino. Nobody
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